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Canadian Science Publishing (CSP) supports the core principles for open research data with the goal of making research data available and accessible for readers, researchers, policy-makers, and the general public.
CSP’s principles are rooted in the recognized importance of data, collaboration, and transparency, the need for research data to be findable, and the opportunities that data access can afford to the research ecosystem.
Principles for data availability
Based on FAIR principles
Findability: Research data should be findable by both machines and humans, be supported by a unique, permanent identifier and be indexed and searchable.
Accessibility: Research data should be openly available to both humans and machines, be preserved for the future, and be easily retrievable using a standard protocol.
Interoperability: Research data should be in a format that is standard, accessible, shareable, flexible, and usable across multiple platforms.
Reproducibility: Access to research data facilitates reproducibility as well as encourages quality control in research data management. Accessible data plays an essential role in encouraging responsible conduct as it relates to published and vetted research that forms the foundation of our scientific information and knowledge.
Integrity: The release of research data may be constrained by privacy considerations, legal concerns, ethical issues, and commercial interests.
Policy on data availability
What are data?
CSP considers research data to be any data that support the results and conclusions of the published article and that could enable the results to be replicated or reproduced. This may include raw data, processed data, code, media files (e.g., images, maps, video, and audio), etc.
The policy applies to primary data (i.e., data produced by the authors for the study being reported), secondary data (i.e., data re-purposed or re-analyzed by the authors from previous works), or additional supporting data.
Whenever possible, CSP encourages authors to make their data publicly available for all published articles reporting original research. Furthermore, CSP encourages authors to adhere to community standards for formatting data and metadata.
Authors can deposit their data in the publicly accessible repository of their choice, or as determined and (or) mandated by discipline, funding source, or institutional requirements. Note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to determine whether or not they are required by their funder or institution to deposit their data in a repository, and for determining the copyright/licensing terms for data held in those repositories. CSP encourages authors to visit fairsharing.org for examples of general and community-specific repositories.
Smaller data sets can be included with the published paper as supplementary material.
Regardless of whether authors choose to publicly share their data sets, all authors must:
- be prepared to provide underlying (anonymized) study data should the journal request it for verification during peer review; and
- include a data-sharing statement that indicates (1) whether any, all or portions of the data or code are available to others; (2) where, through whom, when and on what terms data will be available; (3) how data or code may be accessed.
Data that cannot be made publicly available
CSP recognizes that certain research data cannot be made publicly available, including data sets where individuals could be identified (i.e., the data cannot be anonymized or presented in aggregate) and data sets that contain other sensitive or restricted data. Decisions on whether data are appropriate to be made available rest with the authors, their institutions, and their funders. CSP’s editorial team is available to provide guidance in such cases.
Per Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, CSP supports the inclusion of persistent identifiers that link from the published paper to data sets that are publicly available in repositories. All data sets and program code used in a study must be cited in the paper and listed in the references, complete with a persistent identifier (e.g., DOI and/or hyperlink). CSP provides instructions and examples for citing and referencing external files in the instructions to authors for each journal.
All authors of manuscripts accepted for publication by CSP are required to license the rights to publish the manuscript to the publisher; however, copyright remains with the author(s) or the organization that owns the author(s)’ copyright in the article. This licencing applies to any supplementary materials that are published with the article. For data licencing questions related to individual data repositories, please consult the repository directly.
Data formats and standards
In order to facilitate interoperability and reusability, CSP recommends that authors adhere to community standards for data formatting, presentation, and file types. In all cases, authors should strive to provide clear labels, descriptive annotations, and detailed metadata in order to facilitate future use of the data set. Please refer to fairsharing.org for current information on data formats and standards.
CSP does not impose embargoes on data availability but does request a right of first use to facilitate article-level promotion. For example, in cases where an article will receive a press release or a focused promotional campaign, CSP may coordinate with the authors to release information related to the article on a particular date.
Data management plans (DMPs)
CSP encourages data management plans to be developed and shared publicly. However, DMPs are not required for publication. It is the author(s)’ responsibility to determine if a DMP is required by their institution or funding agency.