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Potential protective effects of the edible alga Arthrospira platensis against lead-induced oxidative stress, anemia, kidney injury, and histopathological changes in adult rats

Publication: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
23 August 2018

Abstract

Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. This study investigated the possible protective effect of dietary Arthrospira platensis supplementation against lead acetate-induced kidney injury in adult male rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal rats (control rats), rats treated with spirulina, rats treated with lead (Pb) (0.344 g/kg body weight), and rats treated with Pb and spirulina. The exposure of rats to Pb for 30 days provoked renal damage with significant increases in hematological parameters, oxidative stress-related parameters (i.e., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl content, advanced oxidation protein products, and hydrogen peroxide), creatinine and urea levels in plasma, and uric acid level in urine. Conversely, antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) and levels of nonprotein thiols, plasma uric acid, and urinary creatinine and urea decreased. The administration of spirulina to Pb-treated rats significantly improved weight, peripheral blood parameters, oxidative stress-related parameters, renal biomarker levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, rats treated with Pb and spirulina had normal kidney histology. These healing effects are likely the result of the high phenol content and significant antioxidant capacity of A. platensis. Our data strongly suggest that spirulina supplementation improves kidney function and plays an important role in the prevention of complications of Pb intoxication.

Résumé

Selon des études, les dommages oxydatifs constitueraient un mécanisme plausible de la toxicité du plomb. Cette étude examine chez des rats mâles adultes le possible effet protecteur de la supplémentation en Arthrospira platensis alimentaire contre les lésions au rein dues à l’acétate de plomb. On répartit les rats dans quatre groupes : normaux (contrôle), traités à la spiruline, traités au plomb (« Pb », 0,344 g/kg de masse corporelle) et traités au plomb et à la spiruline. L’exposition des rats au Pb durant 30 jours cause des dommages rénaux et une augmentation significative des paramètres hématologiques et des paramètres associés au stress oxydatif (c.-à-d. substances réactives à l’acide thiobarbiturique, teneur en protéines carbonylées, produits d’oxydation avancée des protéines et peroxyde d’hydrogène), de la concentration plasmatique de créatinine et d’urée et de l’acide urique dans l’urine. Inversement, on observe une diminution de l’activité des enzymes antioxydantes (c.-à-d. catalase, glutathion peroxydase et superoxyde dismutase) et du taux de thiols non protéiques, d’acide urique plasmatique, de créatinine urinaire et d’urée. L’administration de spiruline aux rats traités au plomb engendre une augmentation significative de la masse corporelle, des paramètres sanguins en périphérie, des paramètres associés au stress oxydatif, du taux des biomarqueurs rénaux et de l’activité des enzymes antioxydantes. De plus, les rats traités au plomb et à la spiruline présentent des reins normaux sur le plan histologique. Les effets curatifs sont vraisemblablement dus au riche contenu en phénols et à la capacité antioxydante significative de A. platensis. Nos résultats suggèrent fortement que la supplémentation en spiruline améliore les fonctions rénales en plus de jouer un important rôle dans la prévention des complications dues à l’intoxication au plomb. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

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cover image Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism
Volume 44Number 3March 2019
Pages: 271 - 281

History

Received: 20 June 2018
Accepted: 7 August 2018
Accepted manuscript online: 23 August 2018
Version of record online: 23 August 2018

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Key Words

  1. diet
  2. injury
  3. physiology
  4. stress
  5. therapy

Mots-clés

  1. régime alimentaire
  2. dommages
  3. physiologie
  4. stress
  5. thérapie

Authors

Affiliations

Manel Gargouri* [email protected]
Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sfax, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.
EA 7462 Géoarchitecture, Faculty of Sciences, University of Western Brittany, 6 Avenue V. Le Gorgeu, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3, France.
Ahlem Soussi*
Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sfax, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.
Amel Akrouti
Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sfax, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.
Christian Magné
EA 7462 Géoarchitecture, Faculty of Sciences, University of Western Brittany, 6 Avenue V. Le Gorgeu, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3, France.
Abdelfattah El Feki
Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sfax, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia.

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*
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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