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The consequences of dam passage for downstream-migrating American eel in the Penobscot River, Maine

Publication: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
12 August 2021

Abstract

American eel (Anguilla rostrata) often pass hydropower dams during adult spawning migrations. We conducted a 4-year acoustic telemetry study that characterized passage risks through two dams (West Enfield and Milford) in the Penobscot River, Maine, USA. We released tagged fish (n = 355) at two sites, estimated survival and delay under variable river conditions, and compared performance among dammed and free-flowing river sections. Survival rates (standardized per river kilometre, rkm) were lower at West Enfield (Φrkm = 0.984 ± 0.006 SE) and Milford (Φrkm = 0.966 ± 0.007 SE) compared with undammed River sections (Φrkm = 0.998 ± 0.0003 SE). Cumulative mortality was 8.7% (4.4 km) and 14.2% (5.5 km) through dammed sections and 8.7% throughout the rest of the river (58.1 km). Fish that already passed an upstream dam incurred higher downstream mortality compared with individuals without passage experience. Additionally, fish endured long delays at dams, and >10% of fish were delayed >24 h. Low flows exacerbated the risk of mortality and delay. These results offer evidence for direct, latent, and sublethal consequences of dam passage for migrating eels.

Résumé

Des anguilles d’Amérique (Anguilla rostrata) adultes passent souvent à travers de barrages hydroélectriques durant leurs migrations de frai. Nous avons mené une étude de télémétrie acoustique de quatre ans qui a permis de caractériser les risques associés au passage à travers deux barrages hydroélectriques (West Enfield et Milford) sur le fleuve Penobscot (Maine, États-Unis). Nous avons relâché des poissons étiquetés (n = 355) en deux sites, estimé la survie et le retard dans des conditions variables du fleuve et comparé les performances entre des tronçons du fleuve endigués et à écoulement libre. Les taux de survie (normalisés par kilometre de cours d’eau, rkm) étaient plus faibles à West Enfield (Φrkm = 0,984 ± 0,006 ÉT) et Milford (Φrkm = 0,966 ± 0,007 ÉT) que dans les tronçons non endigués du fleuve (Φrkm = 0,998 ± 0,0003 ÉT). La mortalité cumulative était de 8,7 % (4,4 km) et 14,2 % (5,5 km) dans les tronçons endigués et de 8,7 % dans tout le reste du fleuve (58,1 km). Les anguilles qui étaient déjà passées par un barrage en amont présentaient une mortalité plus forte en aval que les spécimens sans expérience de passage. En outre, les poissons subissaient de longs retards aux barrages, ce retard étant de >24 h pour >10 % des anguilles. De faibles débits exacerbaient le risque de mortalité et la durée des retards. Ces résultats témoignent de conséquences directes, latentes et sublétales du passage de barrages pour les anguilles en migration. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

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cover image Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume 78Number 8August 2021
Pages: 1181 - 1192

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Received: 22 October 2020
Accepted: 15 February 2021
Version of record online: 12 August 2021

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Matthew A. Mensinger [email protected]
Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Conservation Biology, University of Maine, 5755 Nutting Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA.
Erik J. Blomberg
Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Conservation Biology, University of Maine, 5755 Nutting Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA.
Joseph D. Zydlewski*
US Geological Survey, Maine Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit and Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Conservation Biology, University of Maine, 5755 Nutting Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA.

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*
Joseph D. Zydlewski served as an Associate Editor at the time of manuscript review and acceptance; peer review and editorial decisions regarding this manuscript were handled by Bror Jonsson.
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